Veterinary education initiatives in Telangana state can be traced back to the pre-independence times. Hyderabad Veterinary College was established on 05-08-1946 as a constituent college of Osmania University by His Excellency The Nizam of Hyderabad, a Princely state in the pre-independent India. Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University was established in the year 1964 on the lines of Land Grant Pattern of Farm universities in USA with headquarters at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad and all the Agricultural, Veterinary and Home Science colleges and Research Stations were brought under its administrative control. Thus, the faculty of Veterinary Science remained in the fold of Agricultural University until 2005. 

In the year 2005, Veterinary faculty was delineated from the Agricultural University and a separate University in the name of Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University was formed on 12-06-2005 with headquarters at Tirupati for focused development in Veterinary, Animal and Fishery Sciences. It was having Five Veterinary, Two Dairy Technology and One Fishery colleges, Fourteen Research Stations, Eleven Polytechnics, Two Krishi Vignan Kendras and Two Veterinary Hospitals under its administrative control. Consequent to the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh state as Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states in the year 2014, the need for bifurcating Veterinary University also became imminent. Thus, Sri P.V. Narasimha Rao Telangana State University for Veterinary, Animal and Fishery Sciences was established by the Government of Telangana on 22.11.2014 with headquarters at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad and brought all the relevant institutes located in Telangana state under the fold of newly formed University duly delineating them from Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University.